HIV aids

HIV AIDS have been the scourge of the world in recent times. It has significant impact on health. The country is now estimated to have about 3 million people infected with HIV.This infection is on the rise in South Asia and Southeast Asia.By 1990 about half a million people were suffering from AIDS in the world. There is still abysmal ignornance about the disease. HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is transmitted through contact with blood and other body fluids. This disease was identified in June 1981 and has been the plague of the 20th century. The first virus discovered in the developed world was named as HIV 1 the virus belongs to the Retrovirus Family under the subfamily Lentiviridae. The initial HIV infection progresses into a more severe and debilitating condition where it is associated with a variety of other infections and is called AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    HIV infection can be diagnosed by
  • Serology
  • Antigen detection
  • Co cultivation of the virus
  • Molecular biological technique
Out of all diagnostic modalities available today, the serological tests remain the best procedure of HIV diagnosis. Serological tests are the assay that identify antibodies produced as a result of stimulation of the immune sytem of the human host by the viral antigens.
    Oral lesions associated with HIV infection and AIDS are :
  1. Leukoplakia
  2. Kaposi's sarcoma and
  3. Candidiasis.
Other than the common oral conditions there will be systemic conditions such as protozoal infections, fungal infections, other viral infections and mycobacterial infections. It is absolutely essential to understand that post exposure protocols must be followed to reduce the probability of seroconversion, by taking antiviral drugs immediately after exposure to a patient infected with HIV.